Sunday, March 8, 2020

Cold Weather Reduces Hybrid Fuel Mileage

Cold Weather Reduces Hybrid Fuel Mileage It’s not just the frozen toes and icy temps that can get ya down at this time of the year. It’s filling up at the pump too. Yet even if you drive a hybrid- and love its feel good fuel mileage, they also take a hit in fuel economy when the mercury dips. Why does hybrid fuel economy drop in winter weather? Well, not only do hybrids suffer many of the same cold weather fuel economy losses of a conventional vehicle, but the hybrid electrical systems lose efficiency toowhich equates to a drop in mileage. Hybrid System Temperature – Just like the vehicles internal combustion engine, its hybrid system components (especially the battery) work best when they are warm. The onboard hybrid battery depends upon a chemical reaction to both release energy to the electric drive motor and accept charge during regenerative braking. This reaction is severely hampered when the battery is cold, so the engine runs longer and more frequently to make up the deficit while the battery warms up. Passenger Compartment Heat - Hybrids, just like conventional cars, rely on hot engine coolant circulating through the heater core (heat exchanger) to keep the cabin warm. Obviously, the engine needs to run more frequently to keep up with heater demand. The higher the heater setting, the longer the engine runs. Heavy Defroster Use - Running the defroster can also pull down the mileage. When the defroster is on, not only is it dispensing heat from the heater core, but it also runs the AC compressor to remove moisture from the air. Though its good for the compressor to run periodic cycles in the colder weather (to preserve the integrity of the internal seals), excessive use does reduce fuel economy. In most hybrids, the compressor is run by its own electric motor instead of a belt from the engine, but this doesnt allow the compressor to run penalty-free. That extra electric discharge will require more frequent recharging of the hybrid battery. Running the compressor does hurt fuel mileage. The following two points hybrids share with conventional vehicles: Unburned Fuel – Gasoline just doesn’t atomize and burn as well in a cold engine- tiny droplets of unburned fuel remaining in the cylinder are evacuated with the exhaust. That unburned fuel tallies up to a loss in power- using more fuel to go the same distance- not to mention, substantially increasing the your engines emissions. Tire Pressure Drops – It’s just a law of physics. Colder temperatures cause the pressure in those tires to drop, about 1 to 2 psi for every 10 degrees in temperature drop. Low tire pressure creates extra rolling resistance and friction, and hence, lost fuel economy. How to Improve Hybrid Fuel Mileage Watch that Thermostat - Just as youd turn down the heat in your house to save fuel, set the vehicles heater to the lowest comfortable level.Heat the Seats - If your hybrid has them, take advantage of the electrically-heated seats. The heat from the seats keeps you comfy and reduces the need to heat the whole cabin.Beat the Defroster Penalty - Setting the heater in defrost mode is the easiest way to quickly clear heavily frosted windows (especially the windshield). However, once the cabin is warm and the windows are clear, turn the defroster offin most cases, cabin heat will keep the windows fairly frost-free. Turn on the defroster and cycle only as needed.Garage It – If it’s available, use it. Even if it entails giving that extra junk to the local thrift shop first, parking your vehicle in a garage will keep it warmerand that means a shorter warm-up to reach optimum operating temperature.Get Your Act Together – Yes, organizing and pre-planning your errands will m aximize your time and fuel, since a warmed up car utilizes fuel more efficiently- in addition to making the most of your time as well. Ease Up With the Lead Foot – With black ice and slushy roadways a wintertime reality, not only is it safer to go easier on the accelerator, it’s a smart (and easy) way to save fuel.Check That Tire Pressure - Keep those tires inflated at (or even a bit above) the recommended range. Many manufacturers recommendations for tire pressure are suited for ride comfort while forsaking fuel economy. We usually run our tires several pounds higher for an extra bit of economy.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Importance Of Rules And Regulation In Medical Institutions Case Study

Importance Of Rules And Regulation In Medical Institutions - Case Study Example And if to talk about why these rules and regulations are important to follow then one should know what are the motives and vision of rules and regulation. Rules and regulations are not just written statements which an employee needs to sign before joining an institute, but these rules and regulation show the structure of the institute, the norms over which it is built. It shows the discipline of institutes which tells the values of the institute. When we study and evaluate this case, we come to see the main objection which was professional misconduct; which means breaking the rules and regulations of the institute. And plus it’s unethical and against veracity towards the professionalism. When we study ethics we come to know a deep and strong relationship of law with ethics, as all the laws are made under the light of ethics. Laws are always kept moral and ethical. And ethics tells what’s moral and what is not moral. So when we study this case the first thing which ethics and law both object is that it was against the ethics of the doctor to allow the nurse to sign her prescription even if it was pre-written. Medical is already a field which is very sensitive to the topic when it comes to moral and ethical values as it is related to dealing with patient and the life of a person. The other point which comes in this case study is of Beneficence. That there are huge differences in the duties of doctor and nurse, if the prescription signed by the nurse goes under a legal system then the patient who was prescribed by this prescription can take an action against a doctor that the medicine was not signed by a doctor but by the nurse. And the nurses are not supposed to prescribe medicines. Beneficence in the medical ethics had the great importance which purely focuses what are the ethical values of doctors related to patient dealing. The prior thing which differentiates doctor and nurses is their knowledge of the human body and medication.

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Critically analyse the competing views articulated by Essay

Critically analyse the competing views articulated by capital-exporting countries and capital-importing countries in relation to the nature of compensation for the expropriation of foreign property - Essay Example and other countries. Similarly, Mexico nationalised all American interests in 1938 and refused to pay compensation to the property owners. Their stand, as capital importing countries was that when they initiated economic and social reforms both the nationals and foreign entities suffered or enjoyed equally and hence, there was no question of compensation especially when they had no sources or means or capacity to compensate the parties. On the other hand, capital exporting countries insisted that they were entitled to minimum standard of treatment which should not be just equal to the treatment given to the nationals. Many equitable principles have evolved in the process each of which has been fairly argued for and against. The capital importing countries held the view that when foreign entities enter into their states they are supposed to merge their destiny along with nationals and work together for the country’s betterment and therefore cannot expect any better treatment th an available to nationals. All these controversies had been due to absence of settled international law prior to world war period and during the immediate post war period. As a solution to the much vexed issue, bilateral and multilateral treaties have come to stay as contracts with legal binding to address similar situations during their operating periods. This paper proposes to examine the views of the capital exporting and capital importing countries in the matter of compensation payable for taking of the foreign investor’s (capital exporting) properties by the host states (capital importing). Since there is no enactment of international law as such, only by the customary law and equitable principles, it can be decided whether an expropriation resorted to by the host state is justifiable or not. With this perspective, this paper will examine the customary law and various instances of expropriations across the world and

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Strategies of Negotiations

Strategies of Negotiations Abstract Since early childhood we have learned to negotiate although we probably didnt really realize it. While the tactics we used when we were young were more on an emotional basis we still knew what we wanted and how to get it. We continue to negotiate throughout our daily lives. Negotiation takes proper planning in order for it to be successful. Negotiations often fail for numerous reasons however mainly because we either fail to plan or fail to listen. Therefore it only makes sense that successful negotiations are often driven by the planning and listening. Negotiations are affected by the way individuals communicate, their influencing styles and the way they prepare. While most negotiators go into a negotiation looking for a win-win agreement there are times when companies choose to use hardball tactics no matter what cost. Its important to identify these tactics and know how you will deal with them when confronted. Negotiations In our daily life we negotiate whether its debating what time your child needs to get up for school, with your boss over a project or what to have for dinner. How we handle each one of those negotiations varies based on who were negotiating with. At home we usually dont go through the steps of planning for the negotiation as we must at work. Not because we shouldnt but because of the type of negotiating were doing. In this paper well discuss what negotiation is. Then well discuss how to prepare for negotiations by gathering as much information as possible. Even when you prepare there are reasons negotiations fail and those will be addressed along with how they succeed. Well also discuss things that affect negotiations like communication, influencing styles and preparation. Finally well discuss how not every negotiator goes to the table looking for a win-win bargain. Negotiation is a process when two or more parties who have their own objectives, goal or viewpoint seek to find a common ground and reach an agreement to resolve a matter of common concern or resolve a disagreement. Although individuals may not always realize it negotiations take place several times throughout the day in our every day lives. Anyone who needs to persuade another is the negotiator. From a very young age we have learned to negotiate in order to get our way. Most parties choose to negotiate because they feel they can get a better deal versus settling for what the other has/wants to give. Companies are no different. Companies want the most â€Å"bang for their buck† so to speak. Many companies are better at negotiating than others. That may be due to the individuals they have negotiating on their behalf or it may be because of what theyre negotiating for. Since companies dont divulge their specific strategies, tactics and techniques they use in negotiations one mus t have a plan. This plan must be created outside the negotiation room. According to the Essentials in Negotiations, â€Å"Effective strategy and planning are the most critical precursors for achieving negotiation objectives. (Lewicki, Barry, Saunders. 2007. P. 85) Many times parties go into a negotiation unprepared and end up making concessions that compromising diminishes the profitability of the agreement. â€Å"Research shows that you can achieve the best negotiation outcomes by spending 5x longer preparing for a negotiation than you will actually spend in a negotiation.† (Schroth. 2009) An important part of planning is having a clear and concise proposal before entering into the negotiation. There are many areas you need to consider a few of them are knowing your objectives and the other sides objectives, determining what concessions you can make, how will you achieve your objectives, what will influence the result of the negotiation. It is frequently stated that information is power. Therefore its important to have certain information during a negotiation. You need to know what information you know that the other side does too, what information you know that the other party doesnt have, what information do you have and does the other party have to have prior to negotiating with each other. This is very important when you negotiate with parties who focus on price. Theres other information that is important for instance whats important to the individual youre negotiating with, why do they need to close the deal, how is business for the company during negotiations and how critical is it that they do business with you. The planning phase of negotiation entails all parties finding out as much information as possible prior to discussing any particular deal or alternatives. For example, if you knew that your company was the only one that could meet the requirements, its possible that you could negotiate a more favorable price. If you knew that the other party recently increased their production capability, you might be able to negotiate more favorable terms in return for promising to purchase a definite quantity over a specific time period. By taking the time during the planning stage and listing what information you know and what youll need to know, you will have a better opportunity to negotiate well on your companys behalf. During the bargaining process it is unlikely for the parties to reach an immediate agreement since they usually dont have the same objectives. Usually, agreements must be made where each party must give and receive concessions and it is this is where the payoff of the end result will be determined. When getting ready for negotiations, its recommended you create a reasonable assessment of your perception of the end result. Decide what limitations you have based on your power in the negotiation then figure out what you are ready and capable of conceding to so that you reach an agreement that is , which pleases all involved. Concessions contain two parts; cost and value. Although the words can be used interchangeably they do not mean the same thing. There are times when something is of low cost but great value and vice versa. Therefore its important to know when going into negotiations what is of cost and what is of value to you and your company. During negotiations its possible to concede issues that have minimal dollar cost to you because they may be of great value to the other party. These are the types of concessions you want to proceed with. However, you want to avoid conceding to issues that are of great cost to you regardless of what their value is to the other parties. When planning for negotiations you need to ensure you know what could you reasonably achieve, what is the probable outcome, what is your authority is, what concessions can you concede to and what is their value to both sides. Once that is completed you can then work on planning your strategy. Another part in the planning process is creating a strategy. Youve already established what your objectives are and now you need a plan on how to attain them. During the strategy planning you need to ensure you look at the negotiation from both sides. You cant go into a negotiation with blinders on only looking at it from your viewpoint. If so, you will most likely fail. You need to look forward and think about the other parties strategy. While planning you must be cognizant of the different negotiation tactics and figure out which ones you are comfortable using and realize which ones are being utilized by the other party. We learn to negotiate at a young age in order to get what we want. The tactics used for children are emotional outbursts, stomping our feet, or drawing attention to ourselves in public in order to manipulate our parents. Its amazing that at such a young age we know what we want and what to do in order to obtain it. This approach is considered the positional negotiation and is one-sided. This type of negotiation is holding a strong position and not wanting to know what the basic needs are of the other party therefore we are determined to get the work the best deal at any expense. However, the emotional outburst approach needs to be left to the children and those characters on television. You can not have a relationship and a win-win situation with that approach therefore your negotiation has failed. Negotiations fail for many reasons. Depending on what is being negotiated, who is doing the negotiation and what is at stake. One of the main reasons negotiations fail is due to lack of planning. There is a saying â€Å"failing to plan is planning to fail†. That is exceptionally true when it comes to negotiations. Planning will ensure youre conscious of your objectives and requirements. Although you will need to be a quick thinker and be flexible, in case the other party makes a decision you didnt plan on, you cant just be spontaneous. You have to realize that both parties are interested in mutual problem solving. Remember that youre entering into a relationship therefore you need to be aware of the long-term implications of any decision you make. Negotiations also fail because one person does all the talking and they fail to listen. Its best to listen first and then speak after hearing what others have to say. In John Maxwells book, The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership, he discusses how positional leaders speak first and need the influence of the real leaders to get things done. The real leaders speak later and influence the entire audience. (Maxwell, 2007) This is very important during negotiations if you want to influence the other party. Its important to clarify the agenda prior to solving serious problems. You want to ensure everyone is on the same page and there is no confusion. You do not want to catch the other party off guard and bring up issues theyre not ready to deal with. This will put them on the defense as if youre trying to trick them. You also must elucidate your authority. If you dont have the authority to make certain decisions the other party needs to know that upfront. You will be wasting everyones time if you have to get back with them after conferring with someone who does have the authority. During negotiations its important not to put down others and use threats that cant be carried out. This again will cause the other party to be defensive and create an unfriendly atmosphere. Deliberations will be limited and youre less likely to get what you want. One example of this as stated by Osama El-kadi is when the owner of Harrods, Mr. Al-Fayed, wanted the price to be reduced for Estee Lauder merchandise carried in his store. Mr Al-Fayed that demanded the Chief Executive Officer of Estee Lauder lower the price or he threatened that he would no longer carry the products in his stores. The CEO called his bluff by stating he would have all the goods picked up the following Monday from all his stores. Mr Al-Fayed realized that he made a common negotiator blunder and asked for forgiveness. He also apologetically asked that the CEO not pick up all the goods. Due to the amount of business that Estee Lauder did in Mr Al-Fayeds stores they had the advantage when they went into the negotiation. Mr Al-Fayed used a threat he wasnt ready to carry out and it would have been detrimental to his business and Estee Lauders CEO knew this therefore he called the bluff. That is why you must be willing to go through with a threat if you make it. That is whe re analyzing your position and planning comes into play. Negotiations must be written down. That way both parties know what theyre agreeing to and neither party can argue that something wasnt part of the deal. This also avoids any confusion or misconstruction. Dont hold back information. That doesnt mean talk too much and give up everything however you must let them know what is on your mind. Sharing information helps to create a relationship between both parties. Dont compromise too quickly. Although you want to make a deal you dont want to be to hasty. Now that we discussed why negotiations fail well discuss how they succeed. Negotiations succeed because of proper planning. By spelling out your objectives, requests and what youll settle for youll be more prepared when going into a negotiation. Dont forget to know the same for the other party. Negotiations arent short term. You must be prepared to gain ones trust and create a long term relationship. If you wouldnt want to be treated specific ways make sure youre not behaving in that manner. You need to be, share information and concerns as well as listening to the other parties. Clarify any issues or questions you may have. By knowing the agenda you can prepare prior to the negotiation. Successful negotiations are made by understanding the other party. Look at the other parties viewpoint and you will be able to come up with a solution that is acceptable to all. As stated earlier listening to what the other party is saying so you can understand where theyre coming from. It is natural for one to want to talk but during negotiations its best to listen to the other party. In todays society we come across people with many different backgrounds. As much as wed like to think that everyone is the same were not. You need to be aware of the diversity that is encountered whether it is culture or language. People from different societies may have a different perspective and belief on how a negotiation should go. In some cultures its important to gain a relationship and not discuss the negotiation right away. In America were quick to get right down to business and forget the getting to know one another piece. By knowing the culture and or language you can have a successful negotiation by breaking the barrier and preventing any misinterpretation of what is said. Although the negotiation isnt a legal document make sure you write it down. Be brief, and concise about what was agreed upon. This will ensure you remember what the agreement was between the parties. In order for the negotiation to be a success you need to know what the what the position is of the other party and why they have that position. This will allow you to for create a win-win solution for all involved. Osama El-kadi states that â€Å"Successful negotiation is all about shaping the game before hand. This is what differentiates the men from the boys when it comes to major negotiation. This approach is called tactical-positioning leading to winning (El-kadi.).† Mr El-kadi explains this with an example of how to create a winning position prior to the negotiation. He gives a story of Mr Al-Fayed and his decision to purchase Harrods. Mr Al-Fayed didnt decide one day to walk in and purchase Harrods. He had designed a plan which took three years before he moved on it. He worked for someone on the board. He befriended board members, created credentials, gained trust, and when the time was right he advanced on his plan. By this time he was friends with the deputy chairman of the House of Fraser Group. He went to him one day and asked how much the company was worth. When the deputy stated they had an offer Mr Al-Fayed made a counter offer for almost twice the original offer. By Mr Al-F ayed was fully prepared by establishing a winning position prior to the negotiation. There are many things that affect negotiations. Negotiations are affected by the differences in people or the difference portrayed by people. First is communication. Communication is Any act by which one person gives to or receives from another person information about that persons needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or nonlinguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes. (National Joint, 1992, p. 2) During negotiations the most visible and sometimes the most important type of communication is the non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communications are those visual signals which include facial expressions, body language or even the intonation of your voice. In the Essentials of Negotiation book it discusses three important non-verbal behaviors. They include making eye contact, body posture and encouraging. Eye contact can say a lot about someone. Many times people who are shy or dishonest do not look people straight in the eye when they speak. They look up, down or around so people cant see in to them. Looking someone in the eye is important so they know you are listening to them. However, you need to know the party you are negotiating with because â€Å"in some cultures such as the Japanese, prolonged eye contact is considered rude and is generally avoided (Payne, para. 2).† Body posture is another way to let people know youre paying attention. If youre slouched in the chair and look lackadaisical business negotiations arent going to go well because it will appear to the other party as you dont care. Lastly encouraging is non-verbal communication used by nodding your head or moving you hand to let the other party know you hear what theyre saying. Although you may not verbally be saying anything during the negotiation your body is saying a lot. Those non-verbal communications could make or break your negotiation. Besides non-verbal communication the language can affect your negotiation. Many people go into negotiations trying to use big words to either impress or possibly confuse the other party. Its important that everyone in the negotiation can understand what is being said. Trying to sound as if youre educationally above the other party is going to affect they way they think of you and the outcome of the negotiation. Also with diverse society we have and the number of different cultures its important everyone understands what is being conveyed. What you believe you may be saying may mean something totally different to someone of another culture. Even if they can speak English the translation is different. According to Great Scope Consulting, â€Å"studies show that successful influencers use two clusters of language styles during negotiations.† Just like in the supply chain management they are the push and pull style. You have a high push and low pull style if you give new ideas, information or shut the other person out. On the other hand you have a high pull and a low push if you seek information, build on ideas from others and test understanding. The style of influencing used will be dependent on the negotiation and it is important to be able to use either style. The suitability and characteristic of each style varies. The push style is more of a high risk, low commitment and wins-lose situation and is best used for short term negotiations. The pull style is more of a low risk, win-win situation and best utilized for long term. Another area that can affect negotiations is preparation. This has been reiterated a number of times throughout this paper because it is so important. Negotiations begin way before you sit at the table. It is a procedure that develops over time. It isnt a one time occasion. Gathering information and having adequate time to negotiate. You cant expect to go into a room and have a final agreement in 30 minutes. Negotiations take time. The whole purpose of a negotiation is to reach a win-win situation. Therefore you need to be aware of the win-lose styles and avoid them. Sometimes companies may not appear to be looking for a win-win situation and will use hardball tactics during their negotiations. As a negotiator you have to be able to identify the hardball tactics and decide how you want to handle them. An example of a company who often uses hardball tactics is Costco. Although most of the negotiations with suppliers are kept private lately Costco has been announcing their view on the situation. Recently Costco pulled the Coca-Cola products off the shelf to prove a point. The companies are negotiating over the price customers should pay for the products. â€Å"Costco never accepts a price increase from a supplier without examining every alternative possible to hold the line on price. At Costco, nothing is ever marked up 14% above costs. (Sarasohn-Kahn. 2009, para 7) Costco feels that if they cant give the value their customers deserve than they wont sell that product. Even though Coca-Cola is a large company and a valued supplier Costco is willing to take the risk and publicly announce the issues it is having at the negotiation table. This is one hardball tactic used. Coca-Cola now has to decide whether to ignore the tactic, continue with discussions or reply with a different hardball tactic. The negotiation between Costco and Coca-Cola hasnt been finalized so whether this hardball tactic works in this situation has not yet been determined. When playing this way it is important to understand the possible impact if this approach fails. Although negotiations can be successful this way if you really want to be successful during your negotiation process you must find out what the other party wants and figure a way to give it to them while getting what you want too. From our childhood years we negotiated with our parents to manipulate them into giving us what we wanted. Whether that was candy in a store, letting us stay up late, or buying that toy we really didnt need. At a young age we didnt really know what negotiation was all we knew was what we wanted and how to get it. As we figured out what negotiation was it was then that we had to start preparing for it. We couldnt react on an emotional level and expect to get what we wanted. Even though we should plan for negotiations they sometimes still fail as they did with Mr Al-Fayed who didnt realize he was weaker during his negation process. In his case he actually failed to plan and know what is position was prior to entering into the negotiation. However if you do the proper preparation you will most likely succeed in your negotiation. Negotiators need to be knowledgeable about what affects negotiations like verbal and non-verbal communication and push/pull influencing styles. It may not always be what you say that determines whether you create a win-win situation. Lastly, we discussed how some companies choose to use hardball tactics regardless of the potential impact therefore you need to be able to identify them and know how to handle them before you go into the negotiation.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Contrast of the Modern American and British House :: essays papers

Contrast of the Modern American and British House Modern American and British houses may appear similar from the outside, just as an American may appear similar to an Englishman. One cannot judge a house by its faà §ade, however, and beneath the surface, two altogether different design paradigms exist. The American house is a sprawling retreat that is designed for comfortable living. Compact and efficient, the British house embodies a conservative lifestyle. The two also differ in the amenities they offer. The modern American house overflows with built-in features; the modern British house is sparse in comparison. They are even constructed with dissimilar materials and techniques. Although modern American and British houses can appear similar, they differ significantly in the amenities they offer, their size, and in the way they are constructed. The modern British house typically has fewer amenities than that of its American counterpart. In the bedroom, walk-in closets organize the American's ensemble and accommodate his shoe collection. Conversely, the Englishman uses a pine wardrobe, possibly a family heirloom, which moves with him from home to home. In the American bathroom, a shower is a standard feature that is quite uncommon in the British home. When one is installed, the British shower is a point of significant difference as well. The pressurized American shower is powerful, and leaves one with a feeling of invigoration. The gravity fed British shower, however, is hardly capable of developing enough power to leave one with a feeling of satisfaction. In the modern American kitchen, one is certain to find a dishwasher. In the British kitchen, a dishwasher is the exception, not the rule. Americans also consider most kitchen appliances to be a part of the house. The Englishman holds a different view. It is not unusual for him to take the stove, refrigerator, or even the kitchen cupboards when moving to a new home. The modern British house lacks many amenities that Americans consider basic. It also offers less living space than the modern American house. The grand American house is designed for comfort, whereas the conservative British house is designed for efficiency. These contrasting design approaches yield houses that differ immensely in the amount of living space they offer. American houses have "mud" rooms, laundry rooms, dining rooms, formal living rooms, and family rooms. British houses converge and integrate these functional areas into their common rooms. The hall, or the "reception," is the "mud room." The kitchen is the laundry room and the dining area. Contrast of the Modern American and British House :: essays papers Contrast of the Modern American and British House Modern American and British houses may appear similar from the outside, just as an American may appear similar to an Englishman. One cannot judge a house by its faà §ade, however, and beneath the surface, two altogether different design paradigms exist. The American house is a sprawling retreat that is designed for comfortable living. Compact and efficient, the British house embodies a conservative lifestyle. The two also differ in the amenities they offer. The modern American house overflows with built-in features; the modern British house is sparse in comparison. They are even constructed with dissimilar materials and techniques. Although modern American and British houses can appear similar, they differ significantly in the amenities they offer, their size, and in the way they are constructed. The modern British house typically has fewer amenities than that of its American counterpart. In the bedroom, walk-in closets organize the American's ensemble and accommodate his shoe collection. Conversely, the Englishman uses a pine wardrobe, possibly a family heirloom, which moves with him from home to home. In the American bathroom, a shower is a standard feature that is quite uncommon in the British home. When one is installed, the British shower is a point of significant difference as well. The pressurized American shower is powerful, and leaves one with a feeling of invigoration. The gravity fed British shower, however, is hardly capable of developing enough power to leave one with a feeling of satisfaction. In the modern American kitchen, one is certain to find a dishwasher. In the British kitchen, a dishwasher is the exception, not the rule. Americans also consider most kitchen appliances to be a part of the house. The Englishman holds a different view. It is not unusual for him to take the stove, refrigerator, or even the kitchen cupboards when moving to a new home. The modern British house lacks many amenities that Americans consider basic. It also offers less living space than the modern American house. The grand American house is designed for comfort, whereas the conservative British house is designed for efficiency. These contrasting design approaches yield houses that differ immensely in the amount of living space they offer. American houses have "mud" rooms, laundry rooms, dining rooms, formal living rooms, and family rooms. British houses converge and integrate these functional areas into their common rooms. The hall, or the "reception," is the "mud room." The kitchen is the laundry room and the dining area.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Malnutrition and Hunger in Poor Children in India Essay

Inadequate nutritious diet leads to poor physical and mental development in children, and the problem is more prevalent in the developing countries than the developed countries. Extreme poverty and lack of health awareness in the poor communities cause malnutrition and hunger in pregnant mothers and their developing children. If the problem is not treated timely with appropriate medical intervention, it can lead to adverse consequences, including tragic but preventable death. Causes of Malnutrition and Its Accompanying Deficiency Diseases Sengupta (2009) reported that 42. 5% of children below the age of five years are underweight in India. This is primarily due to illiteracy, lack of awareness about health and hygiene, and scanty financial resources for providing a nutritious diet to the pregnant mothers and their growing children. Sengupta highlighted that only $ 1. 3 billion were being spent to tackle the massive problem of malnutrition and hunger in a country where 230 million children are undernourished. According to International Food Policy Research Institute, 83% of Indian women suffer from anemia, and thus, a baby born from a malnourished mother will be underweight, which is also supported by their findings that 33% of babies born in India are underweight. Can such malnourished children survive? Are they more vulnerable to catch infectious diseases than healthy children? Muller (2005) claimed that Kwashiorkar and Marasmus are two major disorders in children, which are caused by an intake of diet that is poor in proteins and energy giving foods. The symptoms in a Kwashiorkar affected child include swelling of body parts, and it can lead to death if not properly treated; whereas in case of Marasmus, the child can become a victim of paralysis if adequate amounts of proteins and energy are not fed. Ramani and D’Souza (2006) reported that malnutrition makes the child more vulnerable to other deadly diseases, and accounts for 57% of those deaths in undernourished children due to Malaria, 61% of such fatalities resulting from Diarrhea, and 52% of children’s deaths caused by Pneumonia. Intervention Programs to Combat Deadly Malnutrition After going through detailed analyses of the causes and disastrous consequences of the problem of malnutrition and hunger in India, I would strongly propose a health awareness program at the grass root levels. I would propose setting up special health care centers for pregnant mothers and infants, which aim to provide both health education and vital food supplements rich in protein and carbohydrates. Sengupta (2009) had also emphasized the need to care for dietary requirements of pregnant mothers, and their children below two years of age. Since it is not possible to provide a nutritious diet to pregnant mothers and their 230 million malnourished children with a petty sanctioned amount of $ 1. 3 billion, I shall write to World Bank, UNICEF, WHO and other international organizations to contribute to the existing development program for feeding pregnant mothers and their malnourished children. Besides suggesting an intake of protein and energy giving foods for tackling Kwashiorkar and Marasmus, I shall also inform them the need of micronutrients, which are available in green and yellow vegetables. How can a malnourished mother give birth to a healthy child? I shall educate, and request the father of the family to give an equal status to the woman by allowing her to eat together with the rest of the family. According to International Food Policy research Institute, 83% of Indian women suffer from anemia because they eat the residual meals of the family. Conclusion By using a proactive and results-oriented approach, I shall raise funds for educating the individual families to give a nutritious diet to the pregnant mothers and their children. References International Food Policy Research Institute. Despite efforts, why does child malnutrition persist in India? Retrieved from http://www. ifpri. org/media/BeijingPlus10/briefIndia. pdf. Muller, O, & Krawinkel, M. (August 2, 2005). Malnutrition and health in developing countries. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 173 (3). Retrieved from http://www. cmaj. ca/cgi/content/full/173/3/279 Ramani, A. V. , & D’Souza, R. (July-September 2006). Misunderstanding malnutrition. Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, 14(3). Retrieved from http://www. ijme. in/143ed84. html. Sengupta, S. (March 12, 2009). As Indian growth soars, child hunger persists. The New York Times. Asia Pacific. Retrieved from http://www. nytimes. com/2009/03/13/world/asia/13malnutrition. html

Friday, January 3, 2020

Social Conformity and Persuasion in Religion Essay

The Influence of conformity on society through religionmore by John Chaaya 2,137 Download (.doc) The Influence of conformity on society in religion Religion has influenced societies on an epic scale for millennia. Even the mostprimitive people on the planet created gods to worship and use their teachings toform the basis of their society going back as far as the Paleolithic period wheremother earth was worshiped as a goddess. Through time people have stayedtrue to a belief or a religion. Individuals can seldom be without a society or faction. Conforming to a religion provides strengths in society and provides moralguidance as well as strong communities. Conformance is defined as a voluntaryimitation which regulates the behavior†¦show more content†¦The commandments are available in almostevery religion in some shape or form. Welch et al. (2006) found practicingChristians were less likely to commit crimes due to either religiosity or self controlbut that both operated independently. Therefore it could be concluded that in partboth impact the individuals morally. Stark (1984) also backs Welch et al.’sfindings, wher e there was a negative correlation between church rates and crime.Therefore conforming to a religion does help society.Opposer: It may be the case that conforming to religious beliefs may decreasecrime but any deviance from some religious institutions may allow for that personto be cast out. In Islam for example if a female has sex out of wedlock she could 1 be stoned to death, as is the case of the 20 year old woman in 2009 (BBC), or inlesser extremes be banished. Homosexuality in religion is still shunned and insome states in America, homosexuals have been refused the right to have a civilmarriage to be accepted federally even if some states allow marriage (Jimenez,2006).Proposer: It is agreed that deviance can lead to punishment or being shunnedbut that could be due to manipulation of scripture or negative interpretations toallow certain actions. 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